Tuesday, December 22, 2009

Keisha got a new limited edition sony PSP




Keisha got a new Sony PSP limited edition (Hannah Montana) while i got my new 500 gigabytes WD hard drive with enclosure from Australia. Two days ago when my sister arrived from Aussie got all our "pasalubungs"(gift presence). Early that morning we went to the big house to witnessed the gift giving. All were present and excited to see what's in store for everybody. The gift were distributed first to the three kids namely Keisha, Cykie Dodge and the smallest Phinpin. They were very happy to received all the gifts for them. I took pictures to capture their cutest smiles. They received toys and shirts then aften that adult gift distribution followed. I received a 500 gigabytes WD hard drive. I am so thankful for this device because i can use it in my internet business to store files and software. I already knew that i will received this Christmas season because we already discussed it earlier this month and she asked me if I like to have one just like what she bought earlier during that discussion. Everybody was having fun especially the kids because we all know that Christmas has really a great impact for them. This is the time were you can witnessed their happiest moments of the year. To all my friends out there Merry Christmas and a Prosperous New Year.!!!!!!!!!!!!

Friday, December 18, 2009

Koi Breeding

This is in response to the request of my friend in Australia named Constantino asking for the technical details in growing Koi or Japanese Carps. I have been in this business for quite sometimes that's why I am able to answer all the matter concerns. I hope this will answer your inquiry.

BREEDING YOUR KOI


Basic Considerations in Koi Breeding


When starting a koi breeding or koi propagation program, several aspects must be carefully taken into consideration by the prospective koi breeder (note that in this article, the term 'breeder' may refer to either the person breeding the koi or the koi being bred). Some of these important considerations are discussed below.

1. The Brood Stock. The term 'brood stock' refers to the group of koi that is used for breeding and propagating new koi. It goes without saying that proper selection of the brood stock is very important for the success of any koi breeding program. All koi spawners must be healthy and sexually mature, i.e., they should at least be 2 years old. They must have absolutely no genetic deformities and must possess all the good qualities of excellent koi - perfect body conformation, excellent color quality, balanced pattern distribution, graceful movement, etc.



Koi are prolific breeders, with a single female capable of producing hundreds of thousands of eggs. As such, a breeding program doesn't need a brood stock of enormous size to produce sufficient quantities of fry. It is therefore logical to put emphasis on the quality of the breeders rather than the quantity. The only problem with having limited brood stock is the possibility of genetic inbreeding, so care must be taken to avoid this situation.

The size of brood stock required for breeding depends on the goal of the program. A hobbyist can get what he or she needs simply by pairing two nice koi, while a commercial koi farm that needs to produce millions of saleable fish must have around 100 females and about the same number of males.

2. Propagation. Many of us experienced seeing their first koi fry swimming in the main pond itself. Indeed putting a bunch of healthy male and female koi in a pond with good-quality water and some plants can lead to koi spawning and, consequently, the arrival of baby koi. This is not a good way to propagate koi though. Fry almost never survive in such an environment because they become dinner for their elders first. Fortunately, koi experts have already come up with other ways to propagate koi more efficiently.

Many hobbyists mimic natural koi reproduction under a more controlled environment, following these basic steps: 1) selection of the female and male (2 males may be used but not more than this) for the breeding; 2) preparation of the spawning area including the installation of adequate spawning materials; 3) 'conditioning' of the spawners prior to breeding; 4) introduction of the 'ready' male to the 'ready' female; 5) monitoring of the spawning until the eggs are released onto the spawning material and fertilized by the male; 6) removal of the breeders (or the eggs) from the spawning pond; and 7) adjustment of the pond parameters (e.g., aeration) to achieve successful incubation and nursing of the fry. See also: Basic Koi Breeding Method.

Many advanced koi breeders, however, now employ what is known as the dry fertilization method, wherein a tranquilized ripe female is manually stripped of her eggs, which are collected in a clean, dry bowl. This is done by gently squeezing her belly under dry conditions. The sperms of a koi male are then collected in a beaker by similar methods. The milt in the beaker is then poured into the bowl of eggs so that the sperms can fertilize the eggs. The fertilized eggs are then deposited onto the spawning material in the incubation pond.

3. Egg Incubation. At this point, the fertilized eggs of your prized koi breeders must already be attached to the spawning material, whether this is immersed in an outdoor spawning pond or in an indoor incubator or hatchery. Regardless of egg incubation environment, the water quality must be monitored and maintained at optimum levels at all times. Experts recommend a water temperature of 22 to 25 deg C during incubation. Adequate aeration must be provided but it should not disturb the water. And of course, as any koi hobbyist knows, the water must be clean. Some breeders don't provide filtration during incubation so as not to agitate the water.

4. Nursing of the Fry. Once hatched, the fry are liberated from their confinement, but become exposed to the harsh realities of the outside world. If they are in a well-planned koi fry nursery when they hatch, then they are lucky enough not having to worry about being eaten by predators (mainly their parents). Newly-hatched fry can't swim well, so water turbulence must be kept as low as possible without sacrificing aeration and filtration requirements. The larvae must likewise be provided with high levels of illumination since they are dependent at this point on vision to catch their food. Food supply must also be ample once the fry have hatched. The fry may survive on microscopic organisms in a mature pond. In an indoor hatchery, live food such as Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii may be used.


Although more and more koi hobbyists are trying to breed koi using the dry fertilization method (thanks in part to the proliferation of YouTube videos showing how to do it), many prospective koi breeders still prefer the classic method of letting pre-selected koi spawn naturally in a pond. The reason for this perhaps is the simplicity of the classic procedure, which consists mainly of preparing the spawning environmen

t and letting the koi do what comes naturally for them. The steps involved in this basic koi breeding method are presented below.

1. Selection of the Parents. Choosing the right parents for your baby koi need not be difficult, but it can sometimes be tricky too. First things first - you need to know which of your koi are female and which are male. Female koi are visibly rounder than male koi, e

specially those that are ready to lay

eggs. Males are slimmer in appearance, and may develop roughness on their gill plates when ready to spawn.

Choose mature koi only for breeding, i.e., they should at least be two years old (younger koi will produce weak offsprings). Experts say that the optimum breeding age is 2-4 years old. Choose only healthy koi with no deformities whatsoever. Both parents should exhibit excellent body conformation and high-quality colors and markings.

Select the parents based on what baby koi you're after. For example, if you want Kohaku fry, then you need both parents to be Kohaku. Some varieties don't result in nice koi when bred togeth

er, so be sure to do a little research on koi variety pairing before doing it (unless you're after the excitement of uncertainty).


Some breeders use two males for a single female during breeding to maximize the yield of the propagation. The breeding act of the koi is very physical and can harm the participants (especially the female if the males are very aggressive), so this ratio of 2:1 must not be exceeded. One advantage of using just a single male is the higher predictability of what the offspring will look like.

2. Preparation of the Spawning Environment. Once the prospective parents have been identified, they need to be taken out of the main pond and isolated in separate and smaller ponds where they can be conditioned for spawning. Males are separated from females to prevent indiscriminate spawning. Many hobbyists start this isolation at least 1 month before the anticipated spawning date.

Eventually the female becomes rounder and noticeably bloated with eggs. Now with a heavy but soft abdomen, she is presumed to be ready to lay eggs and is very carefully moved to the spawning pond. This pregnant koi must always be supported by water during the move, even while inside a net. At this point the male is also assumed to be ready to participate in the reproduction as well, and is moved into the spawning pond a few hours after the female has already been acclimatized to it. Many breeders introduce the male in the evening, since spawning usually happens in the wee hours of t

he morning.

The spawning pond shouldn't be big - usually with an area of just 6 to 12 sq. meters. It should be thoroughly cleaned and filled with un-chlorinated water to a depth of about 50 centimeters. The spawning pond must have a generous amount of spawning material to encourage the female to lay her eggs on them. Many modern koi hobbyists prefer syntheti

c spawning ropes (see Figure 1) as spawning material because these are free of parasites, do not easily get damaged, and allow easy handling of the eggs, unlike spawning media of the natural kind. The easy-to-handle feature is important if you plan to move the eggs away from the parents right after spawning is completed. Many old-school breeders still prefer natural spawning material though.




Figure 1. A curled spawning rope (left) and a close-up of the spawning rope bristles (right).
The spawning pond must also be sufficiently aerated at all times. Strong but silent air pumps must be used. Unlike the main pond, aeration of a spawning pond must not result in water turbulence, since water tranquility is needed during spawning. As such, the aeration system of the spawning pond must be designed well to meet the aeration requirements without disturbing the water.


SHUSUI


'Shusui' is the term applied to the doitsu version of Asagi. The term 'shusui' translates to 'autumn water.'
Just like an asagi, the top half of the body of a shusui is also light bluish in color, while its undersides exhibit red or orange markings. Being a doitsu though, the shusui can not exhibit a netting effect like an asagi, since it has no scales to show reticulation. Instead, an important feature of a shusui is its line of mirror scales running along its spine from the back of the head to its tail.

'Hi Shusui' refers to a shusui koi whose blue body is almost completely covered with red coloration. A hi shusui that exhibits blue mirror scales on both lateral lines is known as 'hana shusui.'
Appreciation Criteria
Color
The Shusui's body must be blue in color above the lateral line. The blue color must be of even shade and hue within a single koi, although it may vary from one koi to another.
Aside from the blue color of the shusui above its lateral line, it must have red coloration on the underside of the its body, just below the lateral line. This red color may also appear on all fins, the gill covers, and mouth.
Pattern
The mirror scales of a shusui along its back must be in a straight row with no gaps in between from the back of the head to its tail. The head of a shusui must be clean, i.e., it must not exhibit any imperfections or small black spots.




GOSHIKI


'Goshiki' is the term applied to a koi that has a white base color with black-and-blue reticulation, overlaid by Kohaku-like red patterns. Reticulation refers to scales that form a net-like appearance.
The word 'goshiki' translates to 'five colors.' The original goshiki was developed from the sanke and asagi. Thus, the 'five colors' of the goshiki are the red, black, and white of the sanke and the gray and blue of the asagi.


Appreciation Criteria
Color
The shiro (white) base color of the body must be unblemished, thick, snowy, and even milky underneath the black-and-blue reticulation of the scales.
The hi (red) markings on the white body must be solid, deep, and evenly-colored throughout the entire body. The edges of these markings (also known as the 'kiwa') must be very defined, or as they say, 'sharp as a razor.' The hi color may vary from koi to koi, but it should be of uniform hue within an individual koi. The red markings must not be blemished by any black spots.
Pattern
The red markings on the body must be artistically balanced. This means that they must not be confined to one side or one end of the koi only.
The reticulation effect on the white base color of the goshiki must exhibit a perfect netting effect that is visibly sharp and nicely distributed. Goshiki koi with perfect reticulation on snow-white body are very desirable.
A clean and unblemished head is also a sought-after trait of a goshiki.

KOROMO is also one good variety of KOI




Examples of Koromo

'Koromo', which translates to 'robed', is the term applied to a koi that has a white base color, overlaid by red patterns with reticulation. Reticulation refers to scales that form a net-like appearance. In the case of Koromo, these net-like patterns are created by the blue edges of the scales over the red markings. Koromo is basically a cross between Kohaku and Asagi.

Appreciation Criteria
Color
The shiro (white) base color of the body must be unblemished, thick, snowy, and even milky. The shiro must not exhibit any yellowish tint.
The hi (red) markings on the white body must be solid, deep, and evenly-colored throughout the entire body. The edges of these markings (also known as the 'kiwa') must be very defined, or as they say, 'sharp as a razor.' The hi color may vary from koi to koi, but it should be of uniform hue within an individual koi.
Pattern
The red markings on the body must be artistically balanced. This means that they must not be confined to one side or one end of the koi only. An equal distribution of shiro and hi is preferred, so in general a koi heavily marked with red or predominantly white in color is not desired.
The reticulation effect on the red markings comes from the dark blue color of the edge of each red scale. If the scales are lined up in straight rows, they exhibit a perfect netting effect that looks very beautiful. Koromo koi with perfect reticulation on the red markings are therefore desirable.
A clean and unblemished head is also a sought-after trait of a koromo.

UTSURI -koi variety




Shiro Utsuri (3), Ki Utsuri (center), Hi Utsuri (first)
'Utsuri' is the term applied to a koi that has a single base color of white (shiro utsuri), or red (hi utsuri), or yellow (ki utsuri). Over this base color are black markings that 'wrap' around the body (going below the lateral line) as well as extend into the head. Utsuri is to showa as bekko is to sanke. Thus, all criteria that apply to showa sumi quality and pattern are applicable to utsuri sumi. Utsuri was established around 1925.


Appreciation Criteria
Color
The base color (whether shiro, hi, or ki) of the body must be unblemished, thick, rich, and of uniform hue and quality. The base color must not exhibit any sign of tint of a different color.
The sumi (black) markings of an utsuri must be deep, solid, and shiny lacquer-black. The shape of every sumi marking must be clearly defined, with its kiwa or edges as sharp as possible. Undeveloped sumi may appear mottled dark blue or gray instead of solid black. This is not bad for a young koi, since sumi actually develops as the koi grows older. In fact, spotting a potential champion at a young age involves good anticipation of how well the sumi will develop in the next few years.
Pattern
The base color and black markings must be artistically balanced. This means that a certain color must not be confined to one side or one end of the koi only. A good example of excellent utsuri pattern is if the black and base colors are interspersed in a 'checkerboard' pattern.
A good utsuri must have both colors on its head. Lightning-shaped sumi that streaks across the head and divides it into two is desirable. This sumi head marking is known as a 'menware.' A V-shaped sumi pattern on the shoulder of an utsuri is also desired. It used to be that judges look for both a menware and this V-shaped shoulder sumi in an utsuri, but nowadays the presence of only one of these is acceptable.
The base of the pectoral fins of an utsuri must be black. This black base area of pectoral fins is known as 'motoguro.' The more defined and confined to the base it is, the better.


Koi Varieties

Thanks to the ingenuity and dedication of Japanese master koi breeders, the world is now blessed with a diverse collection of koi breeds and varieties. Present-day koi are so brilliantly colored that it's difficult to imagine all of them coming from the dull-colored fish grown for food in the mountains of Niigata, Japan centuries ago.

To novice koi hobbyists, the flurry of Japanese terms corresponding to these various breeds can be daunting. The advice commonly given is to get accustomed to the terms slowly and enjoy the learning process. The starting point of this learning process is more often than not with the three most established and most popular breeds of koi, namely, the 'Kohaku', the 'Sanke', and the 'Showa'. 'Gosanke' is the term used to refer to these three breeds taken together.

"Koi appreciation starts with the Kohaku and ends with the Kohaku."

Kohaku, which pertains to a white koi with red markings, is the first breed to be established by the Japanese. Its simplicity, beauty, and availability make it the most popular and logical choice for a person buying his or her first koi. Through the ensuing years this hobbyist may build up his collection by adding newer and more sophisticated varieties. After having tried them all, however, this hobbyist will most likely 'rediscover' the Kohaku, finally experiencing first-hand what the cliche above really means. But it doesn't end there, the cycle simply starts all over again.

Such is the hobby of koi keeping - a never-ending process of 'discovery' and 'rediscovery'. Thirty years from now, our hobbyist might still be watching some of his or her original koi swimming in the pond after having owned many other varieties of these 'living jewels'. If that will be the case, then he will have done things correctly, and can rightfully claim that he has, after all, achieved every koi keeper's dream.





General Description
'Kohaku' is the term applied to a koi that has a white body with red markings. Kohaku is the first koi breed to be established by the Japanese, with breed stability being achieved in the 1890's.

Appreciation Criteria


Color
The shiro (white) base color of the body must be unblemished, thick, snowy, and even milky. The shiro must not exhibit any yellowish tint.
The hi (red) markings on the white body must be solid, deep, and evenly-colored throughout the entire body. The edges of these markings (also known as the 'kiwa') must be very defined, or as they say, 'sharp as a razor.'
The hi color may vary from koi to koi, but it should be of uniform hue within an individual koi. Different koi exhibit different hues, from a deep persimmon orange to dark, purplish red. This entire range is acceptable, although judges invariably have their own preferences.
Pattern
The red markings on the body must be artistically balanced. This means that they must not be confined to one side or one end of the koi only. An equal distribution of shiro and hi is preferred, so in general a koi heavily marked with red or predominantly white in color is not desired. Red spots below the lateral line are not desired, and so are red marks that extend into the tail or the dorsal fin.
The pattern may be continuous or 'stepped', but the over-all effect of white and red balancing each other should be the ultimate consideration. Many people prefer stepped koi and understandably so, since this pattern ensures red and white alternating with each other. Nonetheless, there have been single-stepped (also known as 'ohmoyo') koi that have won championships for their 'total package' elegance.
A white area separating the tail and the red marking nearest the tail is known as a tail stop, and is considered desirable. A red mark on the lips of a koi (also known as 'kuchibeni') is a 'plus' if it enhances the over-all package of the koi.
A good kohaku has a pattern on the head. The head pattern must extend slightly beyond the eyes but should not reach the nose or lips, leaving a white area in the front end of the head. A fully red head (referred to as 'menkaburi') that makes the koi look 'hooded' is considered negative. Nonetheless, some koi look good despite having it, so don't let it prevent you from buying a koi that you like.
A round patch of red on the head is considered nice. If this red patch is the only marking on a white koi, then the koi is called a 'tancho kohaku', a highly-prized koi variety among the Japanese since it looks like their national bird. If there are other markings on the body of the koi, then the round head patch makes it a 'maruten'

SANKE

'Taisho Sanshoku', or 'sanke' is the term applied to a koi that has a white body with red and black markings. The black markings are in the form of spots that are generally confined to the body above the lateral line. Sanke as a koi breed was established around 1917.


Appreciation Criteria
The criteria for appreciating or judging a Sanke is the same as those of a
Kohaku, with the addition of criteria for its black markings. In fact, it is said that a good Sanke is actually a good Kohaku that has been further enhanced by black spots that add elegance to the totality of the koi.
Color
The shiro (white) base color of the body must be unblemished, thick, snowy, and even milky. The shiro must not exhibit any yellowish tint.
The hi (red) markings on the white body must be solid, deep, and evenly-colored throughout the entire body. The edges of these markings (also known as the 'kiwa') must be very defined, or as they say, 'sharp as a razor.'
The hi color may vary from koi to koi, but it should be of uniform hue within an individual koi. Different koi exhibit different hues, from a deep persimmon orange to dark, purplish red. This entire range is acceptable, although judges invariably have their own preferences.
The sumi (black) markings of a Sanke must be deep, solid, and shiny lacquer-black. The shape of every sumi spot must be clearly defined, with its kiwa or edges as sharp as possible. Undeveloped sumi (also known as 'sashi') may appear mottled dark blue or gray instead of solid black. This is not bad for a young koi, since sumi actually develops as the koi grows older. In fact, spotting a potential champion at a young age involves good anticipation of how well the sumi will develop in the next few years.



SHOWA




'Showa Sanshoku', or 'showa' is the term applied to a koi that has a black body with red and white markings. This definition is confusing to beginners, since modern showa clearly shows that it also has a white body with red and black markings, just like a sanke. This definition came from the early history of showa. When this breed emerged and was established, it was predominantly black. At that time, most breeders keep this breed for its 'blackness.' Nowadays, hobbyists prefer a more balanced mix of red, white, and black.


The difference between a sanke and a showa is in the appearance of the sumi markings. Sanke sumi tend to be in the form of spots generally confined to the body above the lateral line, while showa sumi appear to be relatively larger streaks that 'wrap' around the body (going below the lateral line) as well as extend into the head.
Showa as a koi breed was established around 1920, during the Showa Emperor Era.


Appreciation Criteria
Color
The shiro (white) base color of the body must be unblemished, thick, snowy, and even milky. The shiro must not exhibit any yellowish tint.
The hi (red) markings on the white body must be solid, deep, and evenly-colored throughout the entire body. The edges of these markings (also known as the 'kiwa') must be very defined, or as they say, 'sharp as a razor.'
The hi color may vary from koi to koi, but it should be of uniform hue within an individual koi. Different koi exhibit different hues, from a deep persimmon orange to dark, purplish red. This entire range is acceptable, although judges invariably have their own preferences.
The sumi (black) markings of a Showa must be deep, solid, and shiny lacquer-black. The shape of every sumi marking must be clearly defined, with its kiwa or edges as sharp as possible. Undeveloped sumi may appear mottled dark blue or gray instead of solid black. This is not bad for a young koi, since sumi actually develops as the koi grows older. In fact, spotting a potential champion at a young age involves good anticipation of how well the sumi will develop in the next few years.


Pattern
The red and black markings on the white body must be artistically balanced. This means that a certain color must not be confined to one side or one end of the koi only. A good example of excellent showa pattern is if the black, red, and white colors are interspersed in a 'checkerboard' pattern.
The red-over-white pattern may be continuous or 'stepped', but the over-all effect of white and red balancing each other should be the ultimate consideration. Many people prefer stepped koi and understandably so, since this pattern ensures red and white alternating with each other. Showa with a large percentage of its body covered by 'hi' with very little shiro is known as 'hi showa'. Hi showa is less desired, since the predominantly red body makes it look heavy.
A white area separating the tail and the red marking nearest the tail is known as a tail stop, and is considered desirable. A red mark on the lips of a koi (also known as 'kuchibeni') is a 'plus' if it enhances the over-all package of the koi.
A good showa must have all three colors on its head. Lightning-shaped sumi that streaks across the head and divides it into two is desirable. This sumi head marking is known as a 'menware.' A V-shaped sumi pattern on the shoulder of a showa is also desired. It used to be that judges look for both a menware and this V-shaped shoulder sumi in a showa, but nowadays the presence of only one of these is acceptable.
If a round red patch on the head is the only red marking on the showa, then the koi is called a 'tancho showa', a highly-prized koi variety among the Japanese since it looks like their national bird. If there are other red markings on the body of the koi, then the round head patch makes it a 'maruten' showa.
The sumi of a showa must be distributed in the koi body such that they collectively add balance to the koi. Their presence should enhance the 'kohaku pattern' and not degrade it. Old-style showa koi are heavily endowed with sumi. Modern showa (also known as 'kindai showa') exhibit a sparser distribution of sumi, but these should be clearly defined and solid black nonetheless.
The base of the pectoral fins of a showa must be black. This black base area of pectoral fins is known as 'motoguro.' The more defined and confined to the base it is, the better.


BEKKO


'Bekko' is the term applied to a koi that has a single base color of white (shiro bekko), or red (aka bekko), or yellow (ki bekko). Over this base color are black markings in the form of spots generally confined to the body above the lateral line.
Bekko is to sanke as utsuri is to showa. Thus, all criteria that apply to sanke sumi quality and pattern are applicable to bekko sumi.

Appreciation Criteria

Color
The base color (whether shiro, aka, or ki) of the body must be unblemished, thick, rich, and of uniform hue and quality. The base color must not exhibit any sign of tint of a different color.
The sumi (black) markings of a bekko must be deep, solid, and shiny lacquer-black. The shape of every sumi spot must be clearly defined, with its kiwa or edges as sharp as possible. Undeveloped sumi (also known as 'sashi') may appear mottled dark blue or gray instead of solid black. This is not bad for a young koi, since sumi actually develops as the koi grows older.









Feeding and Nourishing Your Koi


What do koi eat? A lot of things. What should koi eat? Well, that's a different question. Koi generally have such a voracious appetite that they'll try anything thrown into the pond. They also have a tendency to take in more than what's healthy for them, so proper feeding involves control of both the quality and quantity of food given to them. Overfeeding can result in very fat koi (such that body conformation suffers severely) and worse, uneaten food that can foul up the water if not netted out of the pond. Every koi hobbyist must be cautioned against this second problem, since water quality can easily be degraded by leftover food.


Koi hobbyists generally use commercially-prepared koi feeds as staple food for their koi. Koi, however, would appreciate getting a chunk of fruit, squid, shrimp, or fish once in a while. Koi, like people, find it stimulating to experience food variety. Koi keepers who have experimented occasionally feeding their koi with natural foods such as shrimp report that their koi are healthier and get bigger faster during periods when such foods are offered. Fruits will also be a good source of vitamins (like vitamin C) for koi, a good insurance for the fact that some commercial koi feeds don't provide vitamins in the right amounts, if at all.

Regarding commercial koi feeds, there is quite a broad range of available choices in the market. So broad, in fact, that new koi hobbyists sometimes worry about picking the incorrect type for the fish that he or she is about to bring home. There are two popular types of koi food available in the market today - pellets and sticks. Sticks are popular in Europe, while pellets are popular in US and Asia. Some sticks are fluffy and soft, making them more water-absorbent and easier to digest. These, however, may be more expensive pound-for-pound.

Sticks are easier to bite than round pellets because of their narrow ends. Pellet size, therefore, is important - young koi can suffer from perforated mouths while trying to swallow a pellet that's too big for them. If confronted with availability problems, it is thus better to buy undersized pellets than to buy oversized ones. Undersized pellets will only make the bigger koi get satisfied longer - that's all the harm it does.

Figure 1. There are many types of commercially
available koi food

Aside from looking at the size and shape of the koi food, its nutritional value must also be seriously reviewed. Commercially-prepared koi feeds would normally list 32%-40% protein, which is needed for growth and tissue repair. Feeds with high protein content are preferred for younger koi. Older koi must not get less than 30% protein in its daily diet. Koi feeds should also contain digestion-aiding enzymes as well as vitamins A (for better eyesight), B (for energy and better digestion), C (for immunity and bone development), and E (for reproductive health). Wheat germ-based commercial feeds are recommended to develop the body size of a koi. Spirulina-enhanced feeds are believed to enhance the color of koi. To know what nutrients your koi need, please see the Koi Nutrition Table.

Koi feeding frequency is usually determined by the routine or personal schedule of the koi keeper. However, a lot of people say that it is better to feed koi at shorter intervals with smaller amounts than to do a heavy feeding once a day. Still, the bottom line is never to feed the koi more than what they can finish in a few minutes, because fouling up the water with uneaten food is one risk nobody should take.

Providing Your Koi with High-Quality Pond Water


Pond water quality is defined by what the water contains and in what amounts: dissolved oxygen, fish wastes and dead matter, as well as their associated byproducts (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates). Koi experts recommend the monitoring of the following water parameters once a week (or at the minimum, once a month): ammonia level, nitrite level, nitrate level, and pH. The monitoring should be more frequent if the pond is newly built, since the pond's water quality has not yet stabilized. Pond temperature must also be monitored regularly if temperature extremes are being experienced by an outside pond.


One rule that any novice koi hobbyist must know from the start is that water quality can never be judged by water clarity. Some ponds with crystal-clear water may be lethal to fish, since it was lethal enough to prevent algae from growing in it. On the other hand, green ponds where you never see the fish can be very healthy to its inhabitants, producing koi that are bigger and more colorful. Given this, the only way to assess water quality is to test it.

Pond water quality is tested using, well, water testing kits. Normally, every parameter requires its own kit, so the pond owner should be ready to buy 4-5 test kits to be able to test the basic parameters.


Excellent pond water quality is achieved through proper filtration of the pond water. Filtration is the process of removing waste products and other harmful compounds from the water. This can be done mechanically, biologically, or chemically (not recommended). Good filtration systems combine mechanical and biological filtration techniques to achieve its goal: clear and clean water. Water is usually drawn or impelled into the filter using an adequately-sized pump. The 'dirty' water undergoes 'cleaning' as it passes through the various stages of the filter, until it is returned to the pond in purer state.

Mechanical filtration consists of physically trapping the particulate wastes and debris in the water. Sand, beads, pads, and brushes are the commonly used materials for mechanical filtration. Passing the water through these materials traps whatever suspended materials are in the water, e.g., leaves, twigs, fish feces, etc. Mechanical filters become more effective if set up in two or more stages, with earlier stages designed to trap larger debris than later stages. Mechanical filters are often used as the first stage(s) of the filtration system since they prevent the 'larger' wastes from reaching the biological filters.


Biological filtration, as the name implies, employs natural biological processes to convert harmful waste byproducts into less invasive compounds. Koi excrete ammonia, which is deadly to koi in large doses. Certain anaerobic (non-oxygen-breathing) bacteria convert ammonia into nitrites, which are, unfortunately, also poisonous to koi. The good thing is, there are 'good' aerobic (oxygen-breathing) bacteria that convert nitrites into nitrates, which are no longer deadly to koi. These 'good' bacteria are also known as nitrifying bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria occur freely in nature, and will populate your pond in time. Biological filtration therefore simply entails providing a good filtration medium (one with as large a surface area as possible) for these good bacteria to grow in.



Figure 1. Good filter systems are a
'must-have' in the koi hobby

Chemical filtration refers to the use of water clarifiers and algaecides to 'clean' the water. This may be used as a one-time fix or treatment of the pond only or as an integral part of the filtration system to maintain certain chemical properties of the pond water within specifications. Some koi experts believe that treating ponds with chemicals to clean it is not advisable. In fact, chemical filtration can be avoided altogether simply by setting up a good mechanical/biological filter system complemented by regular water changes.

Plants for Koi Ponds


Plants and koi don't really co-exist well in the pond itself, thanks to the penchant of koi for foraging the pond bottom and munching on foliage. This is the reason why most koi ponds don't have plants in the water, save for a few clusters of lilies or rushes here and there. Still, there are plants a-plenty to choose from for livening up your koi pond with some flora.

Plants used in koi ponds and water gardens may be classified into 4 categories: 1) oxygenators or submerged aquatics; 2) deep water aquatics; 3) marginal plants; and 4) floating plants.

Oxygenators

Oxygenators, or 'submerged aquatics', are plants that live just below the surface of the water. Like most other plants, oxygenators generate oxygen in the daytime as a byproduct of photosynthesis, consuming carbon dioxide released by the koi in the process. They also provide security to the koi and may serve as a spawning mat during the breeding season.

Examples of oxygenators for koi ponds that are popular in the West include the Elodea pondweeds, the Water Starwort, the Hornwort, the Willow Moss, the Water Violet, the Spiked Water Milfoil and the Common Water Crowfoot.

To plant oxygenators, the following steps have been recommended by some hobbyists: 1) take any aquatic planting basket or tub and fill it with peagravel; 2) create several bunches of your oxygenator, with each bunch consisting of 4 to 6 strands of 4-inch plants tied together by a lead wire; 3) push these bunches into the planting basket; and 4) place the basket in the pond, with the plants no more than 12 inches below the water surface for them to get sunlight. The basket may be moved to deeper areas as the plants grow.




Figure 1. Callitriche starworts are
good oxygenators for ponds


Deep Water Aquatics

Deep-water aquatics include the most popular group of plants for koi ponds: the lilies. Most people want plants in their pond simply because they find the exquisite beauty of these flowering plants irresistible. Deep water aquatics, as the name implies, have stalks that are long enough to support the large circular leaves floating on the water surface even while the roots are planted on the pond bottom. Deep water aquatics are good consumers of extra nutrients in the water and therefore give algae a strong competition for food, thus helping clear up the water.

Figure 2. Charlie's Choice is just one of
the many lilies available for your pond

Koi Pond Water Quality

Koi enthusiasts never take their pond water for granted. Just count the number of articles on the web discussing how to keep your water clean enough for your koi. There are literally hundreds of them. Now add one more to the list -> this article. I guess a koi website won't be complete without one.





Water quality, as said many times before and to which we all agree, is the most important factor in the pond that affects koi health (and happiness). The question, therefore, is not on the importance of diligently keeping our pond water clean, but on how well we know if we're meeting the requirements. Unless we have a way of measuring the cleanliness of our pond water, we can not really claim that we have good water, regardless of how frequently the mats are cleaned or how clear the water is. Water testing kits, which are now widely available in the market, should therefore be part of any koi hobbyist's toolbox.

Koi experts agree that water is good enough for your koi if: 1) it is free of chlorine and other chemicals such as pesticides, heavy metals, organophosphates, etc.; 2) it has undetectable levels of ammonia and nitrite; 3) its hardness, pH level, and temperature are correct; 4) it has low levels of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) and particulate organic compounds (POC); and 5) it is stable in its quality.




Figure 1. Examples of water testing kits
for different water quality parameters
In the place where we live south of Manila, chlorine in the water is not an issue because we get our water from deep wells. If you get your water from the tap, then chances are that it has been treated with chlorine. You can actually 'smell' chlorine in the water, especially if you're like me who uses deep well water. Chlorine, even at the level present in tap water, is deadly to koi. Thus, you must never put koi in pond just filled with chlorinated water. 'Aging' the water by 24 hours prior to putting your koi in is one advice that you can follow. Later additions of tap water may be done as long as they're small in quantity compared to the bulk of your pond water. Testing of chlorine level after each addition is highly recommended.

Ammonia (NH3) is the next deadliest contaminant in pond water, next only to chlorine. One part per million is already detrimental to the fish. The main source of ammonia, unfortunately, can not be removed from the pond. This is because ammonia in the pond comes primarily from the koi themselves. Ammonia will therefore always be present in the pond as long as there are koi (or other fishes and animals) living in it. The good news is that ammonia is easily converted to less harmful compounds by certain types of bacteria (nitrosomonas) through biological filtration.

The threat of ammonia contamination poses the highest risk while the pond is still new. This is because new ponds still lack the colony of 'good' bacteria needed to convert ammonia into less harmful compounds. Koi experts recommend daily checking of ammonia levels and daily 50% water changes in new ponds until ammonia readings stabilize. The threat of ammonia in new ponds is so serious that there's even a name for this phenomenon - the 'New Pond Syndrome', or NPS.

The Basics of Koi Pond Filtration

Koi pond filtration, the process of removing waste products and other harmful compounds from the koi pond, is a basic requirement of koi keeping. Without koi pond filtration, several things can and will most likely happen: 1) the pond will turn green, rendering the pond fish invisible; 2) parasites and other harmful life forms will easily spread from one fish to another; 3) the pond will become unsightly and foul-smelling; 4) the pond will be poorly aerated; and worst of all, 5) the water quality can become deadly to its inhabitants, which may lead to a massive fish kill (the ultimate nightmare of every koi enthusiast).




Koi pond filtration per se is not difficult nor complicated. It can be very frustrating, time-consuming, and labor-intensive though if it is not carefully planned ahead as part of the pond system. Due to lack of advice, many koi hobby neophytes simply go ahead with the construction of their ponds with little thought about how filtration shall be set up and maintained. Subsequently each of them realizes that an important feature of the pond system is missing and has to do with a makeshift one after the fact, resulting in an underpowered filter with a fraction of the capacity that it should have.

Rule # 1, therefore, is to ensure the proper planning and setting up of the filtration system for every koi pond built. It is best to have this done while the pond is still in its planning stages as well. Taking this rule for granted will defeat the purpose of filtration - the pond will still be green and harmful to the koi even weeks after the filter has been running. It will also result in more frequent and labor-intensive cleaning of the filters. Sooner or later, the hobbyist will shell out more funds in order to correct his poor filtration set-up. This is not to mention the potential loss of expensive koi due to poor filtration.



Figure 1. The Bakki Shower: said to be the latest and
greatest in Japan when it comes to filtration
Many koi experts recommend a filter volume of not less than 33% of the total pond volume. Thus, a 3,000-gallon pond should have a filter capable of holding 1,000 gallons of pond water at any one time. Filter chambers can be costly, so not all koi enthusiasts can and do comply with this recommendation. Filters, however, should not be less than 10% of the pond volume. The smaller the filter, the more efficient the design should be.

Aside from filter chamber volume, water flow rate is another important point to consider when designing a filter. Filtering the water requires a way by which dirty water will be passed through the filters and delivered back to the pond as clean water 24 hours a day. This is achieved by using water pumps. When one speaks of the filter flow rate, what is referred to is the rate at which the pump moves the water through the filter.

Building a Koi Pond

You walk into a new pet shop and see for the first time a gigantic crystal-clear pond teeming with brilliantly-colored and elegantly swimming 2-foot fish. The store owner throws a few pellets into the water and you get mesmerized by the feeding frenzy of the fish you think you've never seen before. Immediately you tell yourself that you've got to have such a fish pond yourself. You've just been bitten by the koi bug.



Almost every little pet shop in Manila sell koi, so koi per se are seen by Filipinos everyday. These, however, are the scrawny, dull-colored, locally-bred ones that are just 2 to 6 inches long. Deeply-colored jumbo koi that trace their immediate roots to Japan are still a rarity in the Philippines, although more and more of them have been finding their way into the country these past few years. In fact, koi business is starting to do well hereabouts, with more and more people having ponds built right in their own yards.


Figure 1. Seeing a beautiful pond with beautiful koi
like this makes one wish to have a pond of his own

People who get bitten by the koi bug shouldn't rush into building a koi pond right away. Koi ponds are more complex than a water-proofed hole filled with water. Koi are hardy creatures, but they have special requirements that need to be satisfied before they can give their owner many years of enjoyment.

Every koi hobbyist has his own idea of what koi pond he wants - how large it is, what shape it will have, where it will go, and the like. However, the koi pond that a hobbyist can get is constrained by several factors: how much he's willing to spend up-front and in maintenance, how much space he has, how much time he can spare to build the pond and attend to it later on, etc. Thus, every koi pond, influenced by the owner's desires and resources, always comes out unique.

Regardless of concept, however, all koi ponds must be properly planned, designed, and built. Unique as they may all be in design, koi ponds have the same requirements in terms of structural integrity and efficiency. There are already well-established guidelines in the hobby on how a pond should be built. Koi enthusiasts who want to stay long in the hobby are always advised to adhere to these guidelines.


Pond Shape and Size



First, a prospective pond owner must have an idea of what pond style he wants. Does he want a fashionable and formal European pond, or a relaxing, natural-looking Japanese-style pond? A formal pond is defined as one that has a regular shape, e.g., circular, rectangular, hexagonal, etc. Once the owner has defined the general concept of his project, he can start looking at more specifics, like the size of the pond for example.

Figure 2. Do you want a formal pond (down) or an informal one (up)?

Nursing Koi Larvae

Four to five days after koi eggs are fertilized, the eggs will hatch into koi larvae and reveal their first signs of life to onlookers. At this point, the happy owner of these newly hatched koi can't help but feel a well-deserved and overwhelming emotion of pride and success. But there's still one important task left at hand - nursing the larvae to health until they can properly take care of themselves.

Koi larvae do not have a developed swim bladder and can not control their buoyancy in water. They swim vertically by twisting their tails and require frequent rests, which they get by attaching themselves to substrates immersed in the water. Because of their inability to swim well, the water in the tank of the larvae must be kept tranquil, i.e., they must not be subjected to harsh water movements. Severe agitation of the water can easily sap the larvae of their energy, or worse, harm their fragile and sensitive bodies. Newly hatched larvae can be easily sucked into water filters too, which is why water filtration is not done at this point.

Although water tranquility is a 'must' for koi larvae, it must also be emphasized that there should be adequate and unimpeded aeration in their tank because they need an ample supply of oxygen at all times. They do not have gills and have to rely on the diffusion of oxygen through the entire surface of their body in order to 'breathe'. As such, they are very sensitive to oxygen depletion as well as the osmotic pressure resulting from the water in which they live in. Because oxygen is more easily depleted in 'dead corners', some experts recommend that a circular tank be used for hatching koi eggs and nursing koi larvae. This circular tank must be provided with silent-type air pumps that can continuously circulate oxygen around the tank.

Aside from providing a tranquil but adequate aeration to the larvae, another challenge is feeding them. Newly hatched larvae don't have a functioning mouth yet so they don't need to be fed. They will get their nourishment from their yolk during their first couple of days or so. Only when they have fully consumed their yolk will there be a need to feed them. Koi larvae normally begin their active quest for food on their third day.

Koi larvae must have ready access to food. Unfortunately, dry foods can not be given to them because these are still harmful to them. Dry foods will also pollute the water quickly, especially in the absence of water filtration. Instead, live and natural foods such as infusoria, daphnia (see Figure 1), and brine shrimp (Artemia) nauplii must be provided to the larvae. By the way, koi larvae rely heavily on vision to hunt their food so they should be provided with a high level of illumination during each feeding, which is done 5 times a day.



Figure 1. Daphnia is a recommended food for koi fry.

After 6 to 8 weeks of live feeding, the koi fry should be ready to eat dry foods. If everything went well up to this point, the koi fry are well on their way to growing into healthy koi adults and the koi keeper can finally relax.


Maintaining a Koi Brood Stock

A group of mature koi used for breeding and propagating new koi is known as a 'brood stock'. Not every koi hobbyist maintains his or her own brood stock. However, those in the business of selling koi (especially commercial farms) can not do without one. This article discusses what people in the koi business do to maintain a viable brood stock.

Having a reliable and viable brood stock is the foundation of any koi production business. Without it, a koi production business will not have a steady supply of millions of koi fry from which to select the genuinely sellable koi. For a koi business to have a good reputation, it must only sell good koi, and we all know that not all koi fry will grow to be 'pond-worthy.' It is for this reason that a large percentage of every generation of koi fry born must be culled - so that only the best koi will grown and sold to solidify the reputation of the business. Thus, a business must produce much more koi fry than it intends to sell every month.

So how many koi must your brood stock have? Well, it depends on how much koi fry you want to sell every month. Let's do the math. According to experts, it is fair to assume that only 7% of koi fry born will have a marketing potential. Thus, you can only sell 7% of the koi fry you successfully hatch - all others are presumably not good enough to sell and should be culled.

Koi produce about 100,000 eggs per kilogram of weight. Now, assuming that each of your female koi is medium-sized and weighs 2 kgs., then each of them can produce 200,000 fry every spawning. Thus, you can expect to get 14,000 koi fry to try to grow and sell for every female that successfully spawns.

This means that a small brood stock consisting of 3 medium-sized females and 3 medium-sized males can give you 42,000 baby koi every year, assuming that each female is made to undergo just a single spawning annually. This is a conservative number for an annual production since in reality, efficient koi farming methods and multiple spawning cycles will allow a koi enterprise to produce 3 million koi fry a year with just 70 pairs of koi. By the way, experts say that one has to take into account the fact that 25% of the brood stock needs to be replaced every year due to unforeseen losses for various reasons.

Your koi brood stock must consist only of mature (2 to 4 years old) and healthy koi with absolutely no deformities. Brood stock koi must also possess all the best qualities of a koi, from perfect body conformation to high-quality colors and well-distributed patterns. Excellent koi will still produce unacceptable fry, but there's a higher chance of getting great koi from great parents. This is why koi show champions command extremely high prices.

Once you've selected and acquired your initial brood stock, you can just add more as needed and replace those that are lost or become unfit for breeding. The important thing is to keep your entire brood stock healthy and fecund at all times.

Koi can spawn naturally twice a year, with the first spawning usually being more productive than the second one. The second spawning is also referred to as the 'late spawning'. Since temperature plays an important role in koi reproduction, the time of the year during which they spawn may differ from country to country. In tropical and subtropical countries, the first spawning of koi usually occurs during the months of March or April while the second one usually occurs in the months of July or August. Isolation of the spawners in preparation for actual spawning must therefore be done in February and June for the first and second spawnings, respectively. To read more about the basic method for koi breeding, see Basic Koi Breeding.

After every spawning activity, the spawners must be returned to the main pond where they are maintained until it's time again to isolate them for spawning.

Koi brood stock must be properly fed in order to stay healthy and prolific. They must be provided with a balanced diet that includes various nutrients and vitamins on top of protein. The food must make the koi healthy but not obese, since obesity is also bad for koi. Complementing koi pellets with natural foods is recommended. Koi that have just undergone spawning are exhausted (and possibly injured), and will therefore benefit the most from proper nutrition which will aid in their fast recovery.


Dry Method of Koi Fertilization (Hand-stripping)

One of the nicest surprises that a pond owner can receive is to unexpectedly see hundreds of new baby koi swimming in his or her pond. Many koi hobbyists become fortunate enough to experience this, thanks to the fact that koi are very prolific breeders and will spontaneously spawn in any pond under the right conditions.

Still, given the awesome fecundity of koi, their natural reproduction in a pond is not as commonly encountered by koi hobbyists as should be. The primary reason for this is that koi love eating their eggs and larvae. As such, their young seldom grow big enough for a pond owner to see. People who want to produce their own koi fry, therefore, can not rely simply on natural reproduction in the pond. To increase their success in producing koi fry, they need to mimic the natural reproduction of koi under more controlled conditions using the basic method for breeding koi.

One disadvantage of this old method for breeding koi is its dependence on the cooperation of the koi being bred, i.e., the female must be induced by the male to lay eggs and the male should be able to fertilize these eggs.

A more dependable method for koi production is known as the dry method of fertilization. This method induces the female and male koi to release their eggs and sperms, respectively, through 'hand-stripping' under dry conditions (which is how it got its name). The steps employed for the dry method of koi fertilization are as follows:

1. Collection of the Female's Eggs. Put the ripe and ready-to-spawn female koi in a small container that's filled with a tranquilizing solution (e.g., 100 ppm Benzocaine). The transfer must be made very gently using a soft net since the koi is heavy and can be easily injured out of the water. The tranquilizing solution anesthesizes the female koi.

Once it is calm enough, take it out of the water carefully and wipe it gently with a soft towel until it is dry (see Figure 1). The female koi must be dry prior to being stripped of its eggs because the eggs will pre-activate if it comes into contact with water before they are fertilized. A helper must clog the genitals of the koi to prevent it from releasing eggs prematurely during this procedure.




Figure 1. Prior to hand-stripping, the koi must first be dried with a clean and soft cloth.


After the koi has been dried, it is ready for hand-stripping. To do this, gently massage and squeeze the swollen belly of the koi while holding it over a dry, clean bowl. The gentle squeezing will cause the female koi to release its eggs in the form of a brownish fluid, so make sure that when this happens the fluid will fall directly into the bowl to avoid spillage (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Collect the eggs of the female koi in a dry, clean bowl during hand-stripping.

Wednesday, December 16, 2009

It is my 36th birthday today

Today is my 36Th birthday and I am not getting any younger anymore. I have to manage my life more secure, more profitable because I have a family to feed. This year of my life, I felt more mature and eager to make more business to be able to give greener pasture for my family. I have learned already a lot of things from the past and knew who was my friend and who will be considered as my true companion in times of struggle. There is only one formula in looking for a better life and this is not to trust persons that are just pretentious, people that are like true to you but if you give and need help they will just immediately disappear or eventually say "NO" to your plans. In my own visayan dialect I can say that "ang tao nga nagitag panabang para mu asenso mau rasay makatubag sa iyang kalisod ug dili angay na mangita ug tabang sa uban kay kasagaran mahiubus raka sa ilang tubag unya, ug nagpaharun ingnun lang pud na sila nga mutabang apan kun tinud un dili jud diay kursunada nga mutabang kanimo" so anyway lets make things more happy since this is my happy day hehehehee..... I tried to forget all the bad experiences of my life. I am now more careful and more mature enough to understand the circumstances that came into my way. To all my readers and online friends Merry Christmas !!!!

Thursday, December 10, 2009

Puzzled about the Martial law decleration

I watched a live telecast on the Maguindanao debate held in senate this afternoon regarding the martial law. There were a lot of ideas presented among the government officials but I was interested more on the explinations of the congressman of the Maguindanao in the name of Didagen Dilangalen whom he explained that why declare martial law to Maguindanao where no one is fighting back to the government rather that filing a murder case to the suspects. Martial law is only applicable to places where there is rebellion. Dilangalen said that why not declare to places where rebels are present like the heavily populated MILF regions. We all knew that MILF groups are considered rebels then why not declare martial law to them instead. Based on the declaration of the martial law, it was stated that martial law is only applied to selected Maguindanao areas that excludes MILF infested areas. How come the president declares Martial law to Maguindanao excluding the real rebels of the neighboring places. What this thing implicates to the public? People will become more puzzled about this thing because it seems that a case is not filed accordingly. Hmmmmmmmmmmmmm..... i just hope that the government can solve this thing and give justice to the Maguindanao massacre victims.

Saturday, December 5, 2009

Maguindanao province is under Martial Law

The Maguindanao province is under martial law right now. The president of the Philippines Gloria Macapagal Arroyo issued and signed the martial law this morning to give way for the military to take over the province. It was said that it is so difficult for the military personnel's to maneuvers using the writ of Habeas Corpus because there are still ways for the Ampatuans to file for any possible ways in favor on them but since martial law is now declared, the military have all the chance to do what is right and easy to perform for a speedy implementation of their plans against the perpetrators.

Friday, December 4, 2009

Happy 71st birthday Lolo Dongloy


We went to Ahfats seafoods house and restaurant located at the back of Victoria Plaza Mall of Davao to celebrate my Dads' 71st birthday. The whole family was having fun because the food is so great and delicious. We ordered different kinds of viands like Abalone with lettuce, beef steak, lemon chicken, seepo guisado, patatim, five kinds seafoods soup and their famous and tasty green soup and ice cold drinks. After having our dinner, I took pictures and video shots for my daily blog update. So to you Dad I wish you good health, and more birthdays to come.

Wednesday, December 2, 2009

I am still sharp when it comes to troubleshooting

Early this morning as I was about to start my pick up engine heading for my garden to pick up some ornamental plants, I suddenly experience engine failure. It fails the engine to run in a regular manner as a result, we were not able to pick-up the plants and work with what is in schedule for the day, instead we immediately start fixing and diagnose what were the possible problems of the engine. I started troubleshooting and concentrate on different parts of the engine and observed its performance. There were problems on electricity so I replaced the condenser and the spark plugs then check on the tension wires for possible leaks, I also performed tune up and check on the valves and its correct clearances. After all the possible changes were made i immediately start the engine and check it if all the problems were resolved but the engine still fails to start so i check again on the carburetor side. I dismantled its components and performed cleaning. I found out that the pins were all clogged and I am so sure that this is what causes the engine failure. after I cleaned all the components and assembled it back. I tried it for the third time to run the engine and luckily it runs smoothly after I adjusted the mixture of the air and fuel adjusting screws. I'm still so sharp when it comes to trouble shooting. no wonder all of my classmates then, were asking me if they have difficulty in the class troubleshooting analysis and practical examinations.

Tuesday, December 1, 2009

Central Mindanao history

Maguindanao massacre gave a very bad image of the Filipino people. I watch news on channel 45 interviewing Father Mercado of Cotabato city. A host asked him about some histories of the Ampatuans. It was said that Governor Andal senior was once became a mayor of the Maganoy which was divide into 4 municipalities namely the Shariff Aguak, Mapasamano, and the two other municipalities. The senior Ampatuan run for office against one of the big names and political leader which was his relative also and he won because the opponent was assassinated. The Maguindanaoans suspected him for the incident but the case was dismissed due to lack of evidence as Father Mercado explained. Most of the big political clans in central Mindanao area have their own specific territories and when someone will invade or make a step and will try to conquer then that's the time they will have a clashed that most often results to war.

 
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